We’ve signed up to the UK Government’s Race to Zero campaign. The most ambitious goal the Government site will allow sign up for is to commit to 50% greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions. However on calculating our Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions using market based calculations we are already at net zero! It’s surprising the Government site sets such an unambitious target.
As a quick summary in case you’re wondering what it all means…
Scope 1 – Direct emissions from manufacturing
Scope 2 – Emissions from our electricity supply
Scope 3 – Essentially the full supply chain from cocoa growing to disposal of packaging, to staff commuting to work.
Of course this isn’t the full picture. If we use location based Scope 2 emissions we are at 5 tonnes of CO2 for 2020. We have yet to include scope 3 emissions which are the most complicated as they include upstream and downstream supply chains and a considerable body of work to undertake. Though we have made a start.
I’ve included our calculations below. We are currently applying for planning permission to install 12 kW of our own solar generation and this may make us carbon negative under market based Scope 2 or close to 0 for location based scope 2.
Lick the Spoon 2020 Carbon emissions report
This is my best attempt so far at calculating our carbon footprint for 2020.
What is a Carbon Footprint?
A carbon footprint is the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organisation, event or product, and is expressed as a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2e). A carbon footprint accounts for all six Kyoto GHG emissions (1) :
• carbon dioxide (CO2)
• methane (CH4)
• nitrous oxide (N 2O)
• hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
• perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
• sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
Different types of carbon footprints
There are different types of carbon footprint:
• Organisational footprint (Scopes 1 & 2)
• Supply chain footprint (Scope 3 )
• Product carbon footprint
An organisational carbon footprint measures the GHG emissions from all the activities across the organisation, including energy used in buildings, industrial processes and company vehicles.
A product carbon footprint measures the GHG emissions over the whole life of a product (goods or services), from the extraction of raw materials and manufacturing right through to its use and final re-use, recycling or disposal.
This document will initially report on the Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions produced by Lick the Spoon.
Scope 3 emissions are very important due to the long supply chain in chocolate and we will indicate measures taken so far there and future plans.
Lick the Spoon Scope 1 & 2 emissions
Our chocolate production unit is based at Unit 2 Masons Wharf, Corsham, SN13 9FY.
The unit was a new build in 2009 and consequently is to a good build standard and for a light industrial unit is very well insulated. The unit is so well insulated that most of our efforts have concentrated on cooling, particularly in the summer months as heating is rarely needed.
Cooling and when needed heating is achieved through highly efficient Air sourced heat pumps. A new production heat pump installed in 2019 allowed us to achieve an average Coefficient of Performance (COP) greater than 3.0 as recommended by the UK Climate Change Committee for 2050. https://www.lickthespoon.co.uk/air-source-heat-pump/
We are going to consider 2020 our baseline year. As such we have no top ups of gasses used in our air sourced heat pump. We have a maintenance contract and as gas top ups are required we will include them in our calculations..
We use no gas.
Our electricity is 100% renewable through Good Energy – one of the most reputable renewable energy suppliers known for their matching of energy usage with direct supplier contracts.
We are currently waiting for planning permission for our own solar roof installation in the summer of 2021.
We have no company own delivery vehicles.
Scope 1 emission Calculation (2)
Scope 1: Direct GHG emissions Companies report GHG emissions from sources they own or control as scope 1. Direct GHG emissions are principally the result of the following types of activities undertaken by the company:
• Generation of electricity, heat, or steam. These emissions result from combustion of fuels in stationary sources, e.g., boilers, furnaces, turbines
0 tonnes CO2
• Physical or chemical processing. Most of these emissions result from manufacture or processing of chemicals and materials, e.g., cement, aluminum, adipic acid, ammonia manufacture, and waste processing
0 tonnes CO2
• Transportation of materials, products, waste, and employees. These emissions result from the combustion of fuels in company owned/controlled mobile combustion sources (e.g., trucks, trains, ships, airplanes, buses, and cars)
0 tonnes CO2
• Fugitive emissions. These emissions result from intentional or unintentional releases, e.g., equipment leaks from joints, seals, packing, and gaskets; methane emissions from coal mines and venting; hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions during the use of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; and methane leakages from gas transport.
Baseline year 2020 = 0 tonnes CO2. This may increase in subsequent reports as servicing records indicate gas refills in heat pumps and fridges.
Total Scope 1 emissions = 0 tonnes CO2
Scope 2 Emissions
Scope 2 accounts for GHG emissions from the generation of purchased electricity2 consumed by the company. Purchased electricity is defined as electricity that is purchased or otherwise brought into the organizational boundary of the company. Scope 2 emissions physically occur at the facility where electricity is generated.
We use Good Energy as an electricity supplier (3)
Now, the latest advice is that businesses should disclose the emissions relating to the mix of fuel sources that generate their electricity supply – known as the market-based method. The upshot for Good Energy business customers is they will now be able to report the 100% renewable fuel mix and the zero carbon emissions they are paying for.
Lick the Spoon Usage 2020 – 13300 kwh
Good Energy Fuel mix 2019 – 2020
Hydro 4.3 %
Solar 13.4 %
Market Based Emissions – 0 tonnes CO2
UK Fuel mix 2019 – 2020
Location Based Emissions – 5 tonnes CO2 (4)
Scope 1 and 2 2020 Emissions totals…
Market Based : Zero emissions
Location based : 5 tonnes CO2
Scope 3 Emissions
Scope 3 emissions are undoubtedly the most difficult to calculate in a chocolate supply chain that spans continents.
At present I have listed the assessments required under scope 3. It can be seen these are comprehensive and will take some time to calculate. There are many optional inclusions.
We have a purchased a University paper assessing the carbon footprint of the cocoa supply chain and will use this as a base line estimate to start with the complex calculations.
Scope 3 Upstream Emissions
1. Purchased Goods and Services
2. Capital Goods
3. Fuel and energy related activity not included in scope 1 and 2
4. Upstream transportation and distribution
5. Waste Generated in operations
6. Business Travel
7. Employee Commuting
8. Upstream Leased assets
Scope 3 Downstream emissions
9. Downstream transportation and distribution
Local deliveries are made by our own electric transport or even sometimes electric bicycle. National deliveries are made by DPD Local who are carbon neutral through offsetting.
2020 – 0 emissions
10. Processing of sold products
11. Use of sold products
12. End of life treatment of sold products
13. Down stream leased assets
1 Carbon Footprinting Introductory guide – The Carbon Trust